Mass balances are used widely in engineering and environmental analyses and it is used to design chemical reactors, to analyze alternative processes to produce chemicals, as well as to model pollution dispersion and other processes of physical systems. Closely related and complementary analysis techniques include the population balance, energy balance and the somewhat more complex entropy balance. These techniques are required for thorough design and analysis of systems such as the refrigeration cycle.

This course is designed to help students to have fundamental knowledge of chemical engineering and application of this knowledge in the solving of material and energy balances of chemical processes including ideal gas, chemical reaction and degree of freedom.

After completing this course, students will understand how to solve chemical process problems involving several unit operations, gases and liquids, recycle, bypass or purge streams and chemical reactions.

**WHO SHOULD COMPLETE THIS COURSE**

- Chemical Engineers
- Project managers
- Technical experts
- Instrumentation Engineers
- Project coordinators
- Team leaders
- Product managers
- Subject matter experts
- Senior managers

**COURSE OUTLINE**

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

- What do chemical engineers do?
- Chemical engineering calculation basics
- Commonly used variables

VARIABLE MEASUREMENTS

- Units
- Force and Weight
- Scientific Notation
- Significant figures
- Range

PROCESS AND PROCESS VARIABLE

- Process terminology
- Mass and volumes
- Flow rates
- Flow meter
- Rota meter and Orifice meter

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

- Molecular weight
- Mass and mole fractions
- Hydrostatic pressure
- Temperature

PROCESS CLASSIFICATIONS

- Batch process
- Continuous process
- Semi batch process
- Material balance on single unit process

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

- Analysis steps
- How to generate independent equations
- Degree of freedom check

CHEMICAL REACTION

- Stoichiometry
- Excess reactants/Regents

CHEMICAL REACTION – II

- Conversion
- Equilibrium Constant
- Extent of Reaction
- Yield
- Selectivity

BALANCE ON REACTIVE PROCESS

- Product purge and Recycle
- Combustion

DENSITY OF MIXTURES

- How to determine mass flow rates and density of liquid mixture
- Two ways of estimated density of mixtures

IDEAL GASES

- Gas equations of state
- Ideal gas mixtures
- Partial pressure

NON IDEAL GAS

- Phase diagram
- Single component phase behavior
- Compressibility factor
- Laws of corresponding states

CUBIC EQUATION STATE

- Van der walls EOS
- SRK EOS
- Non Ideal Mixtures – Kay's Rule

PHASE DIAGRAM

VAPOUR PRESSURE

- Estimation of Vapour pressure
- Clausius clapeyron equation
- Cox chart
- Gibbs phase rule
- Roults law
- More definitions

MULTI COMPONENT GAS-LIQUID SYSTEMS

- Henry law
- Raoults law
- Solutions of solids in liquids
- Hydrated salts
- Colligative solution properties
- Langmuir isotherm

REVISION

- Process classifications
- Material balance fundamental
- Density of mixtures
- Ideal gas

ENERGY

- Forms of energy
- Units of energy

ENERGY BALANCES

- Energy balance on closed systems
- Open system at steady state
- Flow work and shaft work
- Summary

TABLES OF THERMODYNAMIC DATA

- Reference states
- Steam tables
- Energy balance procedures
- Multi component process

MECHANICAL ENERGY BALANCES

CHANGES IN P AND CONSTANT T

- Sensible heat
- Heat capacity
- Estimation of heat capacities
- Adiabatic cooling

PHASE CHANGE OPERATIONS

- Latent heat
- Mixing and solution
- Ideal mixture
- Heat of solution

HEATS OF REACTION

- Extent of reaction
- Important conclusion
- Internal energy of reaction
- Hess Law

HEAT OF FORMATION

- Heats of combustion
- Fuels and combustions
- Heating value
- Flammability and ignition
- Adiabatic flame temperature

FLOWSHEETING

- Terms of flowsheeting
- Defining process variables
- Sequential modular flow sheet simulation
- Convergence block

DESIGN SPECIFICATION

- Equation based simulation

BALANCES ON TRANSIENT PROCESS

- Transient vs. steady state
- General balance equation
- Differential balances
- Integral balancess