Analog and digital signals are used to transmit information, usually through electric signals. In both these technologies, the information, such as any audio or video, is transformed into electric signals. The difference between analog and digital technologies is that in analog technology, information is translated into electric pulses of varying amplitude. In digital technology, translation of information is into binary format (zero or one) where each bit is representative of two distinct amplitudes.

This course is designed to help students to describe, analyze and design analog and digital electrical circuits and become familiar with the number system conversion, laws of Boolean algebra and Op-Amp characteristics.

After completing this course, students would have gained an intuitive understanding of electronics, they should be able to simulate simple analog circuits and write firmware and use FPGAs and be familiar with basic microelectronics technologies and trends.

**WHO SHOULD COMPLETE THIS COURSE**

- Electronic engineer
- Circuit design engineer
- Analog/mixed-signal integrated circuit design engineer
- Electrical engineer
- Project manager
- Team leaders
- Program managers
- Subject matter experts

**COURSE OUTLINE**

ENGINEERING DESIGN PRINCIPLE

- Recognition and Definition of Need
- Engineering and Design
- Design process
- Engineer / Computer Interaction
- Product Development Phases

SIMPLE MODELS

- Basic electrical components
- Mathematical Modeling Loop and Node method
- DC Motor
- Capacitor in AC circuit
- Inductor in AC circuit
- Multisim tutorial

MODELS

- Shockley diode model
- Diode circuit with resistive Load
- Ideal diode in series with voltage source
- Ideal diode model
- Ideal diode in series with voltage source

DIODE AND ITS TYPES

- Diode
- Signal diode
- Freewheel diode
- Zener diode applications
- Light emitting diode
- Applications of LEDs
- Photo diode
- Protection diode
- Fly back diode

RECTIFIERS AND OPTOCOUPLERS

- Half wave rectification
- Full wave Bridge/Center tap rectification
- Rectifier output smoothing
- Optocoupler and its types

TRANSISTOR MODEL AND PARAMETER

- Gummel-Poon Model
- Ebers-moll model
- Transistor Parameters
- NPN and PNP

DARLINGTON PAIR

- Introduction
- Darlington Transistor Applications

POWER TRANSISTORS

- Steady state characteristics
- NPN power transistors
- Active transistor constant current source
- Transistor as switch
- Digital logic transistor switch

NUMBER SYSTEM

- PLD vs VHDL
- Decimal to Binary Conversion
- Octal to Decimal Conversion
- Octal to Binary Conversion
- Binary to Octal Conversion
- Binary to Hex Conversion
- Hex to Binary Conversion
- Hex to Decimal Conversion

CODES

- ASCII
- Gray
- Binary to Gray Conversion
- Gray to Binary Conversion
- BCD
- 1s and 2s complement

LOGIC GATES AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

- Inverters, Buffers, Open –Collector outputs and Fan-out
- OR, NOR, AND, NAND, Ex-OR and EX-NOR
- Laws and rules of Boolean Algebra
- Truth tables
- Karnaugh maps
- PALs and GALs

COMBINATIONAL LOGIC WITH NAND AND NOR GATES

- Universal property of NAND gate
- Universal property of NOR gate

ADDERS AND COMPARATORS

- Half adder
- Full adder
- Parallel binary adders
- Comparators
- 2-bit Comparators

DECODER AND ENCODER

- 4-bit decoder
- BCD to decimal decoder
- Decimal to BCD Encoder
- BCD to Binary conversion
- Binary to grey and Grey to Binary

MULTIPLEXER AND DEMULTIPLEXER

- 1-of-4 mutliplexer
- 74LS151 8-Input Data Selector
- 1-4-line Demultiplexer
- 74HC154 Demultiplexer
- Parity generators/checkers
- 74LS280 9-bit parity generator/checker

LATCHES

- SR Latch
- Set operation
- Reset operation
- 74LS279 Set-Reset Latch
- D Latch
- 74LS75 D-Latch

FLIP – FLOPS

- Edge triggered flip-flops
- Edge triggered SR flip-flops, D flip-flops and JK flip-flops
- Master slave flip-flops

MULTIVIBRATORS

- Mono multivibrators
- Astable multivibrators
- 555 timer

SHIFT REGISTERS AND MEMORY DEVICES

- Serial in/ Parallel out shift registers
- Parallel in/ Serial out shift registers
- Parallel in/ Parallel out shift registers
- Static and Dynamic RAM
- ROM, PROM and EPROM
- Flash Memory
- Magnetic storage
- Optical storage
- CPU and Memory

MICROPROCESSORS AND IC TECHNOLOGIES

- I/O and DMA
- Standard buses- Internal buses
- RS-232 C
- USB
- CMOS vs. TTL
- ECL
- PMOS and NMOS

BIASING

- Common emitter characteristics

LOAD LINE ANALYSIS

- Input load line
- Output load line
- Solution
- Example
- Small signal equivalent

COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

EMITTER FOLLOWER

- Explanation
- Example
- Solution

CLASS A AND B CONFIGURATION

- Single stage configuration
- Push-pull configuration

FILTERS

- First order filters
- Second order filters
- Active filters
- Passive filters
- High pass filter
- Low pass filter
- Band pass filter

NON-IDEAL OP-AMP BEHAVIOR

- AC Limitations
- Noise
- Drift
- Common mode problems