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DEI11M4-SP Processes for Power Distribution

  • Duration:
  • Investment: US$ 149.00

Must complete all lessons




Power distribution has become a pre-requisite when electricity was generated at power stations. It is the final process in the delivery of electricity to the end user at a reasonable cost. As the need for electricity has increased, the demand for a high level of safety throughout the life cycle has also been increased. Hence, it has to be planned with greater care for providing a flawless performance. If there is a break up in electrical supply, emergency generators are used to save our valuable and modern electrical devices.
This course is designed to enable students to know about the power distribution process in detail along with equipment sizing and distribution planning. They will also know about effects of short circuit current, fault current calculation, emergency generator and diesel engine.
After completion of this course, students will know about the distribution system planning, uses of fault current calculation and diesel engine.



  • Electrical engineers
  • Electronics engineers
  • Power system analysts
  • Test engineers
  • Process Engineers/Operators
  • Distribution planning engineers
  • Risk Assessors
  • Maintenance engineers




  • Governing principles 
  • Consumers' responsibility
  • Types of power distribution
  • Industrial distribution components 
  • Main equipment types
  • Electrical safety and power security
  • Voltage classification BS and IEC
  • Voltage classification: IEEE 141:1993
  • Distribution & utilization voltages
  • Distribution voltage options
  • Main distribution at receiving voltage & after step down 
  • LV distribution with multiple levels at same voltage



  • Types of distribution
  • Radial distribution
  • Redundancy 
  • Selective redundancy
  • Loop type redundancy
  • Ring type distribution
  • Overhead line fault indicators
  • Spur lines
  • Mesh type system
  • Industrial distribution
  • Redundancy in primary & secondary level
  • Secondary system redundancy
  • Industrial examples
  • Substation automation: Components
  • SAS remote unit types



  • Types of installations
  • Point to be considered
  • Shore-based system
  • Offshore system configuration



  • Need for system planning
  • Approach to system planning
  • Utility-data collection
  • Data collection-industry
  • Typical studies needed in planning
  • Software applications for studies
  • Power system model for study
  • Low flow, Fault level and Stability studies
  • Sub-transient analysis
  • Load factor, demand and diversity factor 
  • Estimation of demand-bottom up
  • Estimation of demand top down
  • Exercises
  • Projection of future growth
  • Key assets location
  • Basic system parameters



  • Equipment ratings/sizing
  • Primary and other services conditions for equipment sizing
  • Supply parameters
  • Selection basis
  • Rating of switchgear & switchgear busbars
  • Device coordination
  • Cable sizing-factors, voltage rating
  • Selection of equipment, maintainability
  • Expandability –industrial needs
  • Planning for expandability



  • What is a fault?
  • Possibility of faults
  • Active vs. passive
  • Types of three phase faults
  • Transient and permanent faults
  • Symmetrical vs. asymmetrical
  • Effects of short circuit
  • Magnitudes of fault currents



  • Fault current calculation
  • Use of fault current calculation
  • Use of fault current in sizing conductors
  • Short circuit withstand for cables
  • Fault current for switchgear and  CT ratings
  • Fault current in protection settings
  • Example question



  • What is impedance?
  • Calculating system impedance and per unit values
  • Example questions
  • Percentage values
  • Impedance "per unit values"
  • Per unit impedance in fault calculations
  • Example questions for fault calculation
  • Equations for pu values
  • Effects on the frequency of a power system 
  • Impedance of alternators
  • Alternator impedance after a fault
  • Direct and quadrature axis
  • Typical reactance values of alternators
  • Fault level figures kA
  • Electrical networks



  • Why in-plant generation?
  • Continuity – equipment needs
  • CBEMA sensitivity curve
  • Effect of interruptions
  • Safety hazards – Examples
  • Equipment damage – Examples
  • Reason for hazardous condition
  • Production after power failure
  • Costs of interruption
  • Types of in-plant generation
  • Scheme for feeding emergency loads
  • Considerations in planning
  • Motor starting requirements
  • Case studies -1 & 2
  • Harmonic loads & capacity planning
  • Parallel operation essential condition
  • Protection requirements
  • Feeding of external fault by plant generator



  • Earth fault protection
  • Incoming feeder protection – HV delta
  • Prevention of asynchronous closing
  • External system abnormalities
  • Isolation/islanding of systems
  • Load management after isolation
  • Increased fault level
  • Review of plant source earthing
  • Resistance earthed systems
  • Case study - 3 & 4



  • In-plant generation requirements
  • Black start capability
  • Check list for integrating in-plant generation
  • Generation methods
  • Engine generator schematic
  • Open cycle gas turbine
  • Combined cycle gas turbine
  • Scheme of fuel cell
  • Micro turbine internals
  • O&G facility network



  • Need for emergency generators
  • Prime mover choice
  • Reciprocating engines
  • Diesel power plant & its  advantages
  • Engine processes
  • Internal combustion engines
  • Diesel engines for power plants 
  • Multi cylinders – benefits & downside
  • Ignition process
  • Turbocharger
  • Engine configuration
  • Dual fuel engines
  • Fuel used in engines



  • Speed classifications
  • Application based classification
  • Service classification
  • Diesel engine characteristics
  • Engine parameters
  • Basic mean effective pressure & engine efficiency
  • Specific fuel consumption
  • Ambient conditions
  • Turbocharger schemes
  • Jacket water heating systems
  • Water preheating scheme 1 & 2
  • Performance enhancements
  • Typical operation procedures
  • Skid mounted DG set
  • DG set in enclosure,  package planning & control system
  • Electronic governor control module
  • DG set synchronization
  • Load sharing among unequal sets



Plan Name Investment
Unlimited Access for 2 Years: US$ 149.00


Deepak Pais

B.E (Electrical & Electronics)

Deepak started his career within the Zinc mining & smelting industry as Project Engineer in Substation & Distribution Greenfield project. He then worked in a Marine and Logistics firm in the Bahamas as Maintenance and Commissioning Engineer. Following this he worked with Japanese and German automobile firms as Maintenance Engineer for Distribution and Utility related systems. He currently works as an Engineer in a regional NSW electricity Distribution utility.

Deepak has hands on experience in Distribution, Utility and Substation related systems. He has a particular interest in the consistent interpretation and implementation of Greenfield and Brownfield Standards with an emphasis on safety, reliability, economy and whole of life cost analysis.


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